Pipes can be supported from above or below as per the requirements. There are a number of typical pipe support clamps and hangers that can be installed to support dead weight loads, and restrain the pipe for thermal and dynamic loads. These supports remove stresses from the pipes, as too much stress on the pipes might cause leakage or fracture which further results in a multitude of problems.
The pipe support clamps and hangers design mainly depends upon the imagination of the engineer and designer, as literally thousands of different designs have been used for special purposes. There are some codes and standards which are referred for design, manufacturing, fabrication, and installation purposes:
Codes and Standards for Pipe Supports
Following are the major codes and standards related to pipe supports and hangers:
- MSS SP-58: Material, Design, and Manufacturing for Pipe Supports Hangers
- MSS SP-69: Selection and Application for Pipe Hangers and Supports
- MSS SP-77: Guidelines for Contractual Relationships for Pipe supports and hangers
- MSS SP-89: Fabrication and Installation Practices
- MSS SP-90: Pipe Supports and Hanger Terminology
Typical Pipe Support Clamps
Let’s see the below list of different pipe support clamps:
1. Yoke-Type Pipe Clamp
Yoke-type pipe clamps are required for the suspension of high-temperature horizontal stationary insulated lines. This type of clamp is recommended for 4″ – 6″ insulated lines.
2. Three-Bolt Pipe Clamp
Three-Bolt Pipe Clamps are used for the suspension of a horizontal hotline with thick insulation and they are designed to carry loads that are not huge in magnitude. The three-bolt design allows the attachment to the pipe clamp outside of the insulation. The selection of the three-bolt Pipe Clamp depends upon the temperature of the line and the load to be carried.
3. Two-Bolt Pipe Clamp
The Two-Bolt Pipe Clamps are advised to use for the support of horizontal lines where little or no insulation is required on the pipe and the loads to be carried are not large in magnitude.
4. Adjustable Swivel Ring, Split Type
The adjustable swivel ring, split type ring is recommended for suspension of non-insulated stationary pipelines. Adjustable swivel ring is a self-locking element that prevents loosening due to vibration in the line, it also maintains the proper pitch of pipe.
5. Extension or Riser Pipe clamp
Extension or Riser Pipe Clamps are recommended for the suspension or restraint of vertical stationary lines without the use of hanger roads. The transfer of pipe load is achieved by resting both ears of the clamp on a structural member or floor surface. The maximum suggested service temperature for this pipe clamp is 343°C.
6. Extension Split Pipe Clamp, Hinged Type
Extention split pipe clamps are recommended to support non-insulated horizontal lines in conjunction with the pipe nipple. This clamp is especially adapted for use on refrigeration or compressor piping subject to vibration. The interior design of the clamp provides a solid grip on the pipe. The tapered ring inside prevents entrapment of condensed moisture.
7. Steel Weldless Eye Nut
A forged-steel device that is used for high-temperature piping installation. It provides a flexible connection when used with a straight thread rod to a bolt or pin connection.
8. Top Beam C-Clamp
Top Beam C-Clamp is recommended for use under roof installations with attachment to the top or bottom flange of a structural member or with joist type construction where the vertical hanger rod is expected to be offset from the edge of the flange. The clamp has guarded in place by a cup-pointed set screw tightened against the flange. A Jam nut is given for tightening the set screw against the body Casting.
9. Side Beam Clamp
Slide Beam Clamp is required where it is needed for the hanger rod to run vertically close to the beam’s edge. It is attached to the bottom flange of the structural member and prevents the drilling of holes in the member. It can be fitted to different beam flange widths and thicknesses.
10. Center Beam Clamp
Center beam clamp is designed to be used in the suspension of hanger rod from the center of an I-beam and it is attached to the bottom flange of
an I-beam and prevents distortion.
11. Welded Beam Attachment
Welded Beam Attachment is welded to the bottom of the steel beams as a means for connecting hanger rods to the beam, especially where loads and rod sizes are considerably large. It can be installed to provide flexibility or vertical adjustment. The beam size need not be considered.
A U-Bolt is used as pipe guides when the horizontal forces are comparatively small with the anticipated vertical load.
13. Pipe Clip
Pipe Clip is also known as pipe strap, recommended for suspension of horizontal stationary lines by bolting the clip directly to a structure.
14. Steel Beam Clamp with an Eye Nut
This element does no required welding, it is simply attached to the bottom flange of a structural member where the vertical rod is required to be centered on the structural beam. This clamp work the same as the center beam clamp in addition to the adjustment facility.
Typical Pipe Support Hangers
Let’s see the below list of different pipe support hangers:
1. Adjustable Clevis Hanger
A clevis hanger is a pipe attachment for the suspension of non-insulated horizontal stationary lines and it also accommodates the vertical adjustment. The clevis hanger is designed which has a yoke on the outside of the lower U-strap so that yoke cannot slide toward the center of the bolt, thus bending of the bolt is minimized.
2. Pipe or Conduit Hanger
The conduit hanger is recommended for the suspension of non-insulated stationary lines. It can be suspended by a hanger rod, or it can be boted to a wall from the T-slot provided on the side of the strap. A T-slot available in its hanger permits the side bolt to be installed after pipe installation and settings.
3. Adjustable Steel Band Hanger
A pipe attachment designed to suspend non-insulated horizontal stationary lines and vertical adjustments are possible once the pipe is in place. The lower nut is tightened to adjust the line to the required elevation. The top nut must be properly tightened to ensure the proper performance of the hanger after the adjustment.
4. Split Pipe Ring with a Turnbuckle Adjustment
A pipe attachment recommended for suspension of non-insulated horizontal stationary lines and permits installation before or after the pipe is in place. It also provides an economical installation and use of universally adaptable parts.
5. Steel Turnbuckle
The turnbuckle is a device with both ends having an internal thread. It is used to join two threaded rods and providing vertical adjustment.
6. Steel Clevis
A device that is used to connect a threaded rod at one side and a bolted or pinned connection at the other side. Steel clevis is mainly used in high-temperature piping installations.
7. Adjustable Roller Hanger
Piping support that is hanged by a single rod and used for the suspension of horizontal lines where axial moment due to expansion and contraction will occur.
8. Spring Sway Braces
A spring sway brace is a piping support device that is recommended to use for controlling vibration, absorbing shock loadings, guiding or restraining the movement of the pipe producing from thermal expansion, and bracing a pipeline against sway. They consist of springs that provide a restraint force in both a tension and compression mode.
9. Variable Spring Hanger
The variable spring hanger is a device having a single spring coil that supports the gravity loads of pipelines that are subjected to the vertical thermal movements. This spring hanger creates a varying load when the pipeline moves from the cold position to the hot position. This spring hanger supports the pipe from above.
10. Variable Spring Trapeze Hanger
This device works the same as the variable spring hanger with the difference that it is having double spring coils which support the gravity loads of pipelines. This spring hanger supports the pipe from above with two rods.
11. Constant Support Hanger, Horizontal Type
A constant support hanger is a device having a single spring coil working in association with counter-balancing mechanisms to support the gravity loads of the pipelines that are subjected to vertical thermal displacements. This piping support produces a constant load when the pipe moves from the cold position to the hot position. The horizontal type constant hanger support has the spring coil in the horizontal position and supports the pipe from above.
12. Constant Support Hanger, Vertical Type
The vertical type constant hanger support has the spring coil in the vertical position and supports the pipe from above.
Typical Pipe Support Brackets
Let’s see the below list of different pipe support brackets:
1. Light Welded Steel Bracket
The light welded steel bracket is a braced cantilever device that is designed for supporting a gravity load in conjunction with rod-type hangers. This device can be bolted to a wall and it may be installed with the brace either above or below the horizontal member.
2. Medium Welded Steel Bracket
The medium welded steel bracket is a braced cantilever device that is designed for supporting maximum gravity loads and/or horizontal loads up to 6670 N. The loads can be applied anywhere along with the main member.
3. Heavy Welded Steel Bracket
The heavy welded steel bracket is a braced cantilever device that is designed for supporting maximum gravity loads and/or horizontal loads up to 13,340 N and the loads can be applied anywhere along the main member.
4. Side Beam Bracket
This device is designed to be attached to the sides of steel or wooden member and it does not require any kind of welding, it is simply bolted
to the member and provides a means for vertical adjustment.
Typical Pipe Saddle Supports
Let’s see the below list of different pipe saddle supports:
1. Pipe Saddle Support
A pipe saddle is a supporting structure that has a curved base that is used to support cradling horizontal lines by transmitting the load or forces to the adjacent structure.
2. Pipe Stanchion Saddle
Pipe stanchion saddle is used to support cradling horizontal lines where vertical adjustment is required. The U-bolt yoke attached to this type of support provides stability in the piping system.
3. Adjustable Saddle Support
This device is the same as the pipe saddle-support with an additional facility for adjustment.
4. Pipe-covering Protection Saddle
A device designed for use on insulated high-temperature horizontal lines where heat losses are to be kept to a minimum and to prevent insulation against damage.
You my also like to read
Case Study of Storage Tanks Layout or Tank Farm
Pump Piping Design Considerations
Piping Joint Types and Their Application
Pump Cavitation: Causes, Effects, & Preventive Actions
Miter Elbow or Miter Bend Design Calculations